Spring Boot搭建Web项目要点

搭建WEB项目过程中,哪些点需要注意:

1、技术选型:

      前端:freemarker、vue

后端:spring boot、spring mvc

2、如何包装返回统一结构结果数据?

首先要弄清楚为什么要包装统一结构结果数据,这是因为当任意的ajax请求超时或者越权操作时,系统能返回统一的错误信息给到前端,前端通过封装统一的ajax请求统一处理这类错误信息(这样统一就避免每次都需要额外处理)。

那如何包装结构呢?

先封装统一返回结果结构对象 JsonMessage:

public class JsonMessage extends HashMap<String, Object> {

    private static final long serialVersionUID = -7149712196874923440L;

    public JsonMessage() {
	   this.put("status", 200);
    }

    public JsonMessage(boolean status) {
	   putStatus(status);
    }

    public JsonMessage(String msg) {
	   this.put("status", 200);
	   this.put("msg", msg);
    }

    public JsonMessage(boolean status, String msg) {
	   this.put("msg", msg);
	   putStatus(status);
    }
    
    public JsonMessage(String key,Object object) {
	   this.put("status", 200);
	   this.put(key, object);
    }

    public JsonMessage(boolean status, String msg, String key, Object value) {
	   this.put("msg", msg);
	   putStatus(status);
	   this.put(key, value);
    }

    public JsonMessage putStatusAndMsg(int code, String msg) {
	   this.put("status", code);
	   this.put("msg", msg);
	   return this;
    }

    public JsonMessage putStatusAndMsg(boolean status, String msg) {
	   putStatus(status);
	   this.put("msg", msg);
	   return this;
    }

    public JsonMessage putStatus(int code) {
	   this.put("status", code);
	   return this;
    }

    public JsonMessage putStatus(boolean status) {
	   if(status){
	       this.put("status", 200);
	   }else{
	       this.put("status", 500);
	   }
	   return this;
    }

    public JsonMessage putRedirectUrl(String redirectUrl) {
	  this.put("url", redirectUrl);
	  this.put("status", 501);
	  return this;
    }

    public JsonMessage putMsg(String msg) {
	  this.put("msg", msg);
	  return this;
    }

    public JsonMessage put(String arg0, Object arg1) {
	  super.put(arg0, arg1);
	  return this;
    }

}

如何处理包装结果给前端呢?

方法一:所有的controller里ajax请求都返回JsonMessage对象;

方法二:通过 ResponseBodyAdvice 处理;

方法三:通过 HandlerMethodReturnValueHandler 拦截@ResponseBody注解或自定义注解  处理(不太懂的童鞋请百度);

3、如果统一处理异常?

继承 HandlerExceptionResolver 接口即可处理所有异常了,所以这也得分是否ajax请求。然后按不同请求类型处理:


/**
 * 统一异常处理,不论是正常跳转请求还是ajax请求都能处理,
 */
@Component
public class GlobalExceptionResolver implements HandlerExceptionResolver {

    private static Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(GlobalExceptionResolver.class);

    @Override
    public ModelAndView resolveException(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, Exception e) {
	if (handler instanceof HandlerMethod) {
	    HandlerMethod handlerMethod = (HandlerMethod) handler;
	    String referer = request.getHeader("Referer");
	    String exceptionMsg = "系统异常,请稍后操作";
	    String userId = null;
	    String userName = null;
	    Object object = request.getSession().getAttribute(Constant.SESSION_USER);
	    if (object != null) {
		   LoginUser user = (LoginUser) object;
		   userName = user.userName();
		   userId = user.getUserId();
	    }
	    if (e instanceof BusinessException) {
		logger.warn(StringUtil.format("业务异常,当前请求URL:{} 操作用户编号:{} {} \n访问来源:{} \n参数:{}", request.getRequestURL(), userId,
			userName, referer, JsonUtils.beanToJson(request.getParameterMap())), e);
		BusinessException exception = (BusinessException) e;
		exceptionMsg = exception.getMessage();
	    } else {
		logger.error(StringUtil.format("系统异常,当前请求URL:{} 操作用户编号:{} {} \n访问来源:{} \n参数:{}", request.getRequestURL(), userId, 
			userName, referer, JsonUtils.beanToJson(request.getParameterMap())), e);
	    }
	    if (AnnotationHandleUtils.isAjaxAnnotation(handlerMethod)) {
		   JsonMessage jmsg = new JsonMessage(false, exceptionMsg);
		   try {
		       WebHelper.write(response, jmsg.toString(), HttpStatus.OK.value());
		   } catch (IOException e1) {
		       logger.error("发送数据异常", e1);
		   }
		   return new ModelAndView();
	    }
	    ModelAndView modelView = new ModelAndView("common/500"); //跳转到500错误页面
	    return modelView.addObject(Constant.ERROR_MES_KEY, exceptionMsg);
	}
	return null;
    }
}

配置servlet 404、500异常跳转地址:

@Bean
public EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer containerCustomizer() {

        return new EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer() {
            @Override
            public void customize(ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer container) {
        	ErrorPage error404Page = new ErrorPage(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND, "/common/404.html");
                ErrorPage error500Page = new ErrorPage(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR, 
                "/common/500.html");
                ErrorPage errorpage = new ErrorPage("/common/500.html");
                container.addErrorPages(error404Page, error500Page,errorpage);
            }
        };
 }

 

4、如果优雅的处理按钮级别权限?

因为前端采用的是Vue,清楚vue的知道它的表现就是通过model控制view的,所以前端就是在页面渲染 mounted 的时候用ajax去请求,通过返回的字段信息判断是否要显示某按钮或者链接或者视图块。

那后端要如何才能做到验证权限呢?

采用 HandlerMethodReturnValueHandler 拦截所有需要返回权限信息的ajax请求,再根据 methodParameter能获取到method对象,然后就能获取到method上的权限注解信息了再统一调用鉴权服务,再把结果包装到JsonMessage对象返回就可以了。

5、如何配置消息装换器?

首先要弄清楚为什么需要配,因为我们需要按项目要求来下自定义Jackson转换json规范,比如:date类型默认情况是转成时间戳,那这对于前端就需要再装换才可以。再比如null值的对象是否要在json中输出默认是会输出,那我们也可以改成不输出。当然还有其他的就不举例了。


/**
 * 通过继承 WebMvcConfigurerAdapter 来配置spring mvc
 *
 */
@Configuration
public class ApplicationConfiguration extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter{

    @Autowired
    private LoginInterceptor loginInterceptor;


    @Autowired
    private PermissionInterceptor permissionInterceptor;
    
    @Autowired
    private ResponseBodyResolver responseBodyResolver;
    

    /**
     * 可以注入spring mvc提供的 RequestMappingHandlerAdapter bean
     */
    @Autowired
    private RequestMappingHandlerAdapter requestMappingHandlerAdapter;
    
    @Autowired
    private DateConverter dateConverter;

    /**
     * 添加interceptors
     */
    @Override
    public void addInterceptors(InterceptorRegistry registry) {
	   registry.addInterceptor(loginInterceptor);
	   registry.addInterceptor(permissionInterceptor);
	   super.addInterceptors(registry);
    }

    /**
     * 配置消息转换器
     */
    @Override
    public void configureMessageConverters(List<HttpMessageConverter<?>> converters) {
	   converters.add(new ByteArrayHttpMessageConverter());
	   converters.add(mappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter()); //配置jackson2
	   super.configureMessageConverters(converters);
    }
    
    public MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter mappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter(){
	   MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter mappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter = new MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter();
	   mappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter.setSupportedMediaTypes(
        Lists.newArrayList(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN,MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_UTF8));
	   ObjectMapper objectMapper= new ObjectMapper();
       //属性命名规则,这个一般不需要配
	   objectMapper.setPropertyNamingStrategy(new LowerCasePropertyNamingStrategy());
	   objectMapper.configure(MapperFeature.ALLOW_EXPLICIT_PROPERTY_RENAMING, true);
	   objectMapper.setSerializationInclusion(JsonInclude.Include.NON_NULL);
       //默认date属性格式,可以其它的
	   objectMapper.setDateFormat(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"));
	   mappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter.setObjectMapper(objectMapper);
	   return mappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter;
    }
    
    @Override
    public void addReturnValueHandlers(List<HandlerMethodReturnValueHandler> returnValueHandlers) {
	   returnValueHandlers.add(responseBodyResolver);
	   super.addReturnValueHandlers(returnValueHandlers);
    }
    
    /**
     * 配置属性编辑器,主要是当前端form提交字符串时转成date类型
     */
    @PostConstruct
    public void webBindingInitializer(){
	    requestMappingHandlerAdapter.setWebBindingInitializer(dateConverter);
    }

}


@Component
public class DateConverter implements WebBindingInitializer{
    
    @Override
    public void initBinder(WebDataBinder binder, WebRequest request) {
    
        binder.setAutoGrowCollectionLimit(Integer.MAX_VALUE);
        //  CustomDateEditor只要继承PropertyEditorSupport
        CustomDateEditor dateEditor = new CustomDateEditor(CustomDateEditor.TIMEFORMAT, true);

        //注册自定义的属性编辑器  表示如果命令对象有Date类型的属性,将使用该属性编辑器进行类型转换  
        binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, dateEditor);
        
    }
    
}

 

6、项目示例:

6.1  项目依赖 pom.xml:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<project
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd"
	xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<parent>
		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
		<version>1.4.2.RELEASE</version>
		<relativePath />
	</parent>

	<artifactId>web-demo</artifactId>
	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
			<artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
            <version>3.1.0</version>
		</dependency>
		<!-- spring-boot -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
			<version>${mybatis.spring.boot.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-freemarker</artifactId>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>
	<!--	<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
			<optional>true</optional>
		</dependency>-->
	</dependencies>

</project>

application.properties:

logging.config=classpath:conf/xml/logback.xml

#freemarker config info
spring.freemarker.templateEncoding=UTF-8
spring.freemarker.cache=false
spring.freemarker.charset=UTF-8
spring.freemarker.check-template-location=true
spring.freemarker.content-type=text/html
spring.freemarker.expose-request-attributes=false
spring.freemarker.expose-session-attributes=false
spring.freemarker.request-context-attribute=rc
spring.freemarker.templateLoaderPath=classpath:/templates/pages
#这没加后缀是因为在代码里手动标名后缀
spring.freemarker.suffix=
spring.freemarker.view-names=*.html


#server config
server.session.timeout=1800
server.contextPath=/demo
server.port=8080
#server.compression.enabled=true
#server.compression.min-response-size=1024
#server.tomcat.max-threads=500


#resource config
spring.resources.chain.cache=false
spring.resources.static-locations=classpath:/static/
#spring.resources.cache-period=60


#cache config
spring.cache.type=guava
#缓存最大数量1000条, 缓存失效时间5分钟
spring.cache.guava.spec=maximumSize=1000,expireAfterAccess=10m

spring.http.multipart.max-file-size=5Mb
spring.http.multipart.max-request-size=5Mb
spring.http.multipart.enabled=true

6.2 启动类:

@PropertySource(value={"classpath:conf/env/datasource.properties",
	"classpath:conf/env/message.properties",
	"classpath:conf/env/config.properties"})
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableTransactionManagement
@EnableAutoConfiguration(exclude=RabbitAutoConfiguration.class)
@EnableCaching
@MapperScan("com.test.demo.persistence")
@ComponentScan(value={"com.test.demo"})
//导入spring xml文件
//@ImportResource(locations = { "classpath*:/spring.xml" })
public class WebDemoApplication {
    
    private final static Logger logger = LogManager.getLogger(WebDemoApplication.class);
    
    public static void main(String[] args) {
	   System.setProperty("spring.config.location", "classpath:conf/env/application.properties");
	   SpringApplication.run(WebDemoApplication .class, args);
	   logger.info("start completed !");
    }
    
    @Bean
    public EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer containerCustomizer() {

        return new embeddedServletContainerCustomizer() {
            @Override
            public void customize(ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer container) {
        	ErrorPage error404Page = new ErrorPage(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND, "/common/404.html");
                ErrorPage error500Page = new ErrorPage(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR, "/common/500.html");
                ErrorPage errorpage = new ErrorPage("/common/500.html");
                container.addErrorPages(error404Page, error500Page,errorpage);
            }
        };
    }
    
}

 

未经允许不得转载:JX BLOG » Spring Boot搭建Web项目要点

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